Land surveying is the basic area in civil engineering which includes linear and angular measurements of the relative positions of the points of the surface if the earth. linear and angular measurements enable the engineers to get know the information of the piece of land, ground or plot in the belonging area. form this information surveyor can locate the radius of the area or features and then bring it on to the paper to a suitable scale that furnishes a tool to prepare a layout plan which helps them plan a project work of buildings which they can execuite easily.
Object Of Surveying In Civil Engineering
Surveying is a very basic area of civil engineering because before starting any project the survey of land is done first of all.in short, civil engineering surveying deals with the measurement and angular measurement in horizontal plane and in vertical plane. surveying in civil engineering also determine the relative position of the points in the vertical plane,which comes under the part of levelling.
Types Of Surveying In Civil Engineering
Primarily, Surveying Can Be Divided Into Two Classes;
1] Plane surveying
2] Geodetic surveying
Plane Surveying is that type of surveying in the means surface of the earth is considered as a plane and spheroidal shape is negelated.it is useful for measuring the area of land or plot.it is useful for engineering architectural commercial, military, navigational purpose.
Geodetic Surveying is that type of surveying in which shape of the earth is taken into account. All lines lying in the surface are curved lines.to obtain accurate map of wide areas ad cantrols for all surveys.to obtain information regarding the position of points, heights above sea level.
- A drawing broad or table mounted on a tripod.
- A straight edge called an alidade.
Tacheometric Surveying is a branch of angular surveying in which the horizontal distances fron the instrument station to the staff and the vertical distance of a point are determined from instrumental observations. chaining is thus compeletely eliminated. method is more rapid though less accurate as compared with chaining.
Introduction of Tacheometric Surveying
- It is branch of angular surveying in which the horizontal distance from the instrument station to the staff and the vertical distance of a point are determined from instrumental observations.
- Chaining is thus compeletely eliminated.
- When obstacles such as broken ground, stretches of water or swamps are met with, Tacheometry is best adapted from the speed and accuracy point.
- In rough country both horizontal and vertical measurements are tedious and changing is inaccurate, difficult and slow.
- In location contours and filling in a topography survey, this method is usually the quickest and best.
What Is Surveying In Civil Engineering?
Maps and plans of exesting area of a ground can be prepared from the field observations taken in horizontal plane.relative position of the points on the earth surface can be determined or can be established.the horizontal distance between the different point can be found out and finally plan or traverse of an area can be prepared by the method of surveying. alignment of the road,railway line,electric tower line,tunnel,bridges,electric pole,and marine structure can be fixed by the method of surveying.
Importance of surveying in civil engineering
What do you do when you want to achieve any goal in your life?
You plan, assess your situation, your weaknesses, finance, alternative plans, steps required to achieve your goal, then you start working on them!
Surveying is similar to it. Basically before any construction activity, we plan, assess the construction site, consider cost capital investment, man power needed,most feasible and economic method to carry forward the construction before proceeding with it. So surveying is a very important part of civil engineering.